Tourism in Hangzhou (For Conferences Held in May, 2018)
The conferences in May, 2018 have been held at Four Points By Sheraton Hangzhou Binjiang. And the last day (from 8:30 to 17:00) of each conference is the time for tourism in Hangzhou. Here is the tourism route:
Lingyin Temple (灵隐寺) --- Su Causeway (苏堤) --- Ten Scenes of West Lake (Viewing Fish at Flower Harbor) (西湖十景之花港观鱼) --- Leifeng Pagoda (雷峰塔)
Organizing Committee provides the lunch during the tourism.
Hangzhou (杭州，háng zhōu), the capital city of Zhejiang Province, is the political, economical, cultural and financial center of Zhejiang Province. It is famous for the beautiful scenery, enjoying the reputation of "There is paradise in heaven and there are Suzhou and Hangzhou on earth." There are many scenic spots in Hangzhou, such as West Lake(西湖), Lingyin Temple(灵隐寺) and Su Causeway(苏堤).
West Lake (Figure 1) is like a brilliant pearl embedded in the beautiful and fertile shores of the East China Sea near the mouth of the Hangzhou Bay. Over the centuries, the beauty and culture of West Lake has attracted numerous literati, who left behind works of literature and poetry to describe the lake. For example, Dream in West Lake and The Enchiridion of Lake and Mountain recorded a lot about West Lake and ancient Hangzhou historic anecdotes. Nowadays, West Lake still offers many attractions for tourists at home and abroad.
Figure 1: West Lake
Located at the north-west of the West Lake at Hangzhou, Lingyin Temple (Figure 2) is one of the oldest and ancient Buddhist temples in China. It contains numerous pagodas and Budddhist grottoes. As one of the largest temples in Wulin Mountain in Hangzhou, Lingyin Temple attracts thousands of visitors and Buddhist because of its long history and charming scenery.
Figure 2: Lingyin Temple
Su Causeway (Figure 3) is the longest series of bridges crossing over Hangzhou's West Lake. In Northern Song Dynasty (1090), the famous poet Su Dongpo was then the governor of Hangzhou, he built the causeway to connect the West Lake. In memory of this famous poet, this causeway was later named after him as the "Su Causeway". It consists of six simple yet beautiful bridges and the embankments along the way are all landscaped with trees and flowers.
Figure 3: Sudi
Viewing Fish at Flower Harbor（花港观鱼）
As one of top ten attractions at West Lake, Viewing Fish at Flower Harbor (Figure 4) features the flower harbor plus red carps, peony flowers, a big lawn and dense woods. The history of Viewing Fish at Flower Harbor can be dated to the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279). Back then, the government official Lu Yunsheng built a private garden at the foot of Flower Hill (Huajia Hill). He dug a pond, and raised various fish in it. The garden was first called Lu Garden, and then became known as Flower Harbor. Later, Ma Yuan, a great painter of the Southern Song Dynasty, depicted the scene when he created the Ten Paintings of West Lake. From then on, the beautiful scene has been known as "Viewing Fish at Flower Harbor".
Figure 4: Viewing Fish at Flower Harbor
Leifeng Pagoda (Figure 5) (雷峰塔, Léi Fēng Tǎ) is a five-story tower with eight sides, located on Sunset Hill south of the West Lake. It was originally constructed in the year AD 975. Leifeng Pagoda was one of the ten sights of the West Lake because of the Legend of the White Snake, which was a romantic love story in ancient times between Xu Xian and the "White Lady" or "White Maiden" (白娘子, Bái Niángzǐ), they fell in love with each other to break though the laws of nature.
Figure 5: Leifeng Pagoda
Tourism in Jinan (For Conferences Held in October, 2016)
The conferences in October have been held in Jinan, China. And the last day of each conference is the time for tourism in Jinan. Here is the tourism route (from 8:00 to 17:00):
Daming Lake Park (大明湖) --- Baotu Spring Park (趵突泉) --- Thousand-Buddha Mountain (千佛山)
Organizing Committee has provided the lunch during the tourism.
Jinan is renowned across China for its numerous springs, the lakes fed by the spring water, and the weeping willows that grow along the water edge. The late-Qing author Liu E describes Jinan’s cityscape in his novel “The Travels of Lao Can” (老残游记, written 1903–04, published in 1907) as “Every family has spring water, every household has a willow tree”. Jinan was also the historical center of Buddhist culture for the whole province which is still manifested in the many historic sites that are left behind in its southern counties.
Daming Lake Park (大明湖)
Daming Lake Park (Figure 1) is famous for Daming Lake (also known as the Lake of Great Light) which is a natural lake formed from many springs. Characteristically unique is its constant water level, unaffected by heavy rains or drought. The six islands in Daming Lake contain flowers, trees and other plants flourishing amongst the various pavilions. The lake is a center of activity and one can find fish leaping near yachts and boats. In summer, lotuses bloom uninhibitedly filling half of the park with its fragrant scent. At the same time, willows circle the lake on three sides and swing with the breeze, a scene for which Daming Lake is famous. The centerpiece of the lake is a great man-made hectometer fountain built in 1985. The fountain has 103 injectors, and the main injector can spout water as high as 100 meters (about 328 feet) in all its majesty.
Figure1：Daming Lake Park
Baotu Spring Park (趵突泉)
Baotu Spring (Figure 2) is located in the centre of Baotu Spring Park and is renowned as the best of the 72 springs in Jinan. Since ancient times, many famous poems and prose have been written relating to its unique beauty. The special geographical structure in Jinan creates the special Baotu Spring. Water pours out from the underground limestone cave throughout the night and day, sometimes reaching its maximum of 240,000 cubic meters per day. When water bursts out from the three outlets, the spring creates thunderous sounds and sprays water jets. Sometimes water columns are created that reach as high as 26.49 meters (about 86.9 feet), making a real spectacle. The spring retains its temperature at 18 degree Celsius (64.4 degree Fahrenheit) all year round. In cold winter, water mist rises and floats over the pool like clouds.
Thousand-Buddha Mountain (千佛山)
The Thousand-Buddha Mountain (Figure 3) (Qianfo Shan) is about 258 meters high (846 feet) ranging from east to west. It has been constructed into a park in1959 which occupies an area of about 166 hectare (140 acres). The mountain was called Mt. Li in ancient times. However, in the early days of Sui Dynasty (581-618) a great many statues of Buddha were chiseled on the rocks of the mountain and the Thousand-Buddha Temple was built and soon became famous, so the name of the temple was to become that of the mountain. There are many scenic spots and historical relics distributed in the mountain.
Tourism in Shanghai (For Conferences Held in December, 2016 and in October, 2017)
The conferences in December, 2016 and The conferences in October, 2017 have been successfully held in Shanghai, China. And the last day of each conference is the time for tourism in Shanghai. Here is the planned tourism route (from 8:00 to 17:00):
Oriental Pearl Tower (东方明珠), Shanghai Bund (上海外滩), China Pavilion at Expo 2010 (上海世博会中国国家馆), City God Temple (城隍庙)
Organizing Committee will provide the lunch during the tourism.
Shanghai is the most populous city in China and the most populous city proper in the world. It is a global financial center, and a transport hub with the world’s busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta in East China, Shanghai sits on the south edge of the mouth of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the Chinese coast. Shanghai is a popular tourist destination renowned for its historical landmarks such as The Bund, City God Temple and Yu Garden as well as the extensive Lujiazui skyline, many skyscrapers, and major museums including the Shanghai Museum and the China Art Museum. It has been described as the “showpiece” of the booming economy of Mainland China.
Oriental Pearl Tower (东方明珠)
Oriental Pearl Tower (Figure 1) is a TV tower which is located at the tip of Lujiazui of Pudong District, adjacent to Shanghai International Convention Center, opposite of the Bund. With the height of 468 meters, the Oriental Pearl Tower is the highest tower in Asia and the third highest in the world. The TV tower is composed of pedestal, three gigantic columns, upper sphere, middle sphere, lower sphere, five small spheres and a moving capsule, etc. The whole tower is supported by three huge columns that start from the underground. It is said that the designer was inspired by a verse of Tang Dynasty poem Pipa Xing by Bai Juyi. The verse describes a sprinkling sound of pipa (a Chinese instrument), just like pearls falling on the jade plate.
Figure1: Oriental Pearl Tower
Shanghai Bund (上海外滩)
Shanghai Bund (Figure 2) is a waterfront area in central Shanghai. The Bund is an area of Huangpu District which runs along the west bank of Huangpu River. With length of 1,700 meters, the Bund extending from Waibaidu Bridge (Garden Bridge in English) in the north to East-2 Zhongshan Road in the south is world-known destination and landmark of Shanghai. The Bund usually refers to the building and wharves on this section of road. Facing Huangpu River, the Bund houses 52 buildings of various architectural styles including Gothic, Romanesque, Renaissance, Neo-Classical and Art Deco so that it is nicknamed the world expo of architectures. Chen Yi Square is a famous spot on the Bund. The only bronze statue of Chen Yi (the first communist mayor of Shanghai) standing on the square. On weekends, the concert is held in the front of the statue of Chen Yi.
Figure2: Shanghai Bund
China Pavilion at Expo 2010 (上海世博会中国国家馆)
The China Pavilion at Expo 2010 (Figure 3) colloquially known as the Oriental Crown, was the largest national pavilion at the Shanghai Expo and the largest display in the history of the World Expo. It was meticulously designed with profound meaning and symbolism. The architectonic feature of the building was inspired by the Chinese roof bracket known as the dougong as well as the Chinese ding vessel. The pavilion showcased China’s civilisation and modern achievements by combining traditional and modern elements in its architecture, landscaping and exhibits. After the end of the Expo 2010, the building was converted to a museum.
Figure3: China Pavilion at Expo 2010
City God Temple (城隍庙)
City God Temple (Figure 4) or Chenghuang Temple is a Taoist Temple located in Huangpu area near the Yuyuan Market. The original temple, constructed in Ming Dynasty, was destroyed and the present temple was rebuilt in 1926. After renovation, it was opened to the public in 1995. The City God Temple not only refers to the temple complex but also the traditional commercial district around the temple. There are more than 100 shops in the area and most buildings of these shops are about 100 years old. The temple is composed of several halls. Because of its popularity, businesses were set up nearby and the surrounding streets became a busy marketplace. Therefore, the marketplace surrounding the temple is the good place to buy Shanghai local products and small wares and taste local famous snacks.
Figure4: City God Temple
Tourism in Xi'an (For Conferences Held in May, 2019)
The conferences in May, 2019 will be held in Xi'an, China. And the last day (from 8:00 to 17:00) of each conference is the time for tourism in Xi'an. Here is the tourism route:
Terracotta Warriors（兵马俑）--- Big Wild Goose Pagoda（大雁塔）---Ancient City Wall（西安明城墙）--- Xi'an Muslim Food Street（回民小吃街）
Xi'an (西安), the capital of Shaanxi Province, located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China, in the center of the Guanzhong Plain. It is one of the oldest cities in China, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming dynasty. Xi'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, and Tang. Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang. There are many tourist spots in Xi'an, such as the world-famous Terracotta Warriors (兵马俑), impressive Big Wild Goose Pagoda (大雁塔), grandiose Ancient City Wall (西安明城墙) and etc.
The Terracotta Warriors (Figure 1), also referred as Terracotta Warriors and Horses, is located in east of Lintong District of Xi'an, China, lying Lishan Mountain in south and facing Weihe River in north. With its large scale and overwhelming momentum, the Terracotta Warriors is regarded as the Eighth World Wonder and was listed into 5A world cultural heritage in 1987. The Terracotta Warriors is a collection of terracotta figures showcasing the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. There are three main square-shaped pits hosting these warriors, chariots and horses.
Figure 1: Terracotta Warriors
Big Wild Goose Pagoda（大雁塔）
Big Wild Goose Pagoda (Figure 2) is a Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi'an, which is an architectural marvel in China and regarded as the land mark of Xi'an, appealing numerous travelers home and abroad to pay a visit every year. Big Wild Goose Pagoda was started to build in 652 during the Tang Dynasty, rebuilt in in 704 during the reign of Empress Wu Zetian and renovated during the Ming Dynasty. The pagoda hosts sutras and figurines of the Buddha brought to China from India by Xuanzang, a prestigious Buddhist translator and traveler in Tang dynasty.
Figure 2: Big Wild Goose Pagoda
Ancient City Wall（西安明城墙）
Xi'an City Wall (Figure 3), square-shaped, is located in the downtown of Xi'an, 12 meters in width, 18 meters in the bottom-width and 15 meters in top-width. Xi'an city is enclosed by walls in four directions, which protects this ancient city solemnly. The east wall stretches 2590 meters long, west wall, 2631.2 meters, south wall, 3441.6 meters, and north wall, 3241 meters, with 13.7 kilometers in circumference. There are four gates equipped into the wall, namely Changle gate in east, Anding gate in west, Yongning gate in south and Anyuan gate in north.
Figure 3: Ancient City Wall
Xi’an Muslim Food Street（回民小吃街）
The Xi’an Muslim Food Street (Figure 4) is the collective name for a number of streets, including Beiyuanmen Street, North Guangji Street, Xiyangshi Street and Dapiyuan Street, and it has become a famous attraction of Xi’an for its profound Muslim cultural atmosphere. Though Muslim Street is regarded as a tourist scenic spot by foreigners, it’s actually considered a snack street by the locals, and is an ideal place for locals to kill time during a hot summer. As a matter of fact, what makes this Muslim Street a food street is unending lines of various restaurants and food stalls, some of which specialize in selling cakes, others in dried fruit or breads, and hordes of stalls selling barbequed meats on skewers.
Figure 4: Big Wild Goose Pagoda
Tourism in Suzhou (For Conferences Held in July, 2017)
The conferences in July have been held in Suzhou, China. And the last day of each conference is the time for tourism in Suzhou. Here is the planned tourism route (from 8:00 to 17:00):
Humble Administrator's Garden (拙政园) (including Suzhou Garden Museum (苏州园林博物馆)) ---Hanshan Temple (寒山寺) ---Pingjiang Street (历史老街平江路)
Organizing Committee will provide the lunch during the tourism.
Suzhou is situated on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the shores of Lake Tai and belongs to the Yangtze River Delta region. Shanghai lies to the east, Zhejiang Province to the south, Wuxi City to the west and the Yangtze River to the north. The city's canals, stone bridges, pagodas, and meticulously designed gardens have contributed to its status as one of the top tourist attractions in China.
Humble Administrator’s Garden (拙政园)
Humble Administrator’s Garden (Figure 1) is the largest and most renowned elegant classical garden in Suzhou. Due to its unique designs and ethereal beauty, the garden has garnered many special honors. It is listed as a World Cultural Heritage site and has also been designated as one of the Cultural Relics of National Importance under the Protection of the State as well as a Special Tourist Attraction of China. The Humble Administrator's Garden was originally built in 1509 during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). The garden was created upon the old relics of a residence and a Taoist temple. Water feature is the main background and its natural landscape includes small forests, hills and rock formations. It also has man-made pavilions, halls and parlors.
Figure 1: Humble Administrator’s Garden
Suzhou Garden Museum (苏州园林博物馆)
Suzhou Garden Museum (Figure 2) was first located in the residential area of Humble Administrator’s Garden. It was built and opened in the autumn of 1992. It is the first garden museum in China. The new building of Suzhou Garden Museum is located on the west side of Humble Administrator's Garden. It was built in October 2005 and has a construction area of 3390 square meters. The museum is divided into five parts: preface hall, the history hall, the art hall, the culture hall and the end hall. The art hall is the main part which shows the Chinese classical gardening techniques of mountain,water, plant and architecture in detail.
Figure 2: Suzhou Garden Museum
Hanshan Temple (寒山寺)
Hanshan Temple (Figure 3); literally: “Cold Mountain Temple”, is a Buddhist temple and monastery in Suzhou, China. It is located at the town of Fengqiao (lit. Maple Bridge), about 5 kilometres west of the old city of Suzhou. Traditionally, Hanshan Temple is believed to have been founded during the Tianjian era (502–519) of the reign of Emperor Wu of Liang, in the Southern and Northern Dynasties period. The current name of the monastery derives from Hanshan, the legendary monk and poet. Hanshan and his disciple Shide are said to have come to the monastery during the reign of Emperor Taizong of Tang (627–649), where Hanshan became the abbot.
Figure 3: Hanshan Temple
Pingjiang Street (史老街平江路)
Pingjiang Street is located in the north-east of Suzhou. The core value of this region lies in the integrated preservation of the double-chessboard layout of Suzhou, with the streets and rivers going side by side while the water and land routes running in parallel. It is also praised as “the Ancient City of Suzhou in miniature”. The existing overall layout of Pingjiang Street has a history of more than one thousand years. However, it still remains the waterside town style, with small bridges over the flowing rivers and white walls and dark tiles, which accumulates deep cultural deposits and gathers extremely plentiful historical relics and human landscapes. Strolling in the street, you can feel the unique lingering charm of this landscape produced by its long history.
Figure 4: Pingjiang Street
Tourism in Nanjing (For Conferences Held in October, 2018)
The conferences in October, 2018 will be held in Nanjing, China. And the last day (from 8:00AM to 17:00PM) of each conference is the time for tourism in Nanjing. Here is the tourism route:
Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum (中山陵)---The Nanjing Presidential Palace (南京总统府)---Yuhuatai (雨花台)---Xuanwu Lake (玄武湖)---Qinhuai River (秦淮河)
Organizing Committee will provide the lunch during the tourism.
Nanjing is the capital of Jiangsu province and the second largest city in eastern China (after Shanghai), with a total population of 8.16 million and an urban population of 6.55 million in 2013. The city whose name means ‘‘Southern Capital’’ has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capitals of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century CE to 1949. Nanjing is one of the most beautiful cities of mainland China with lush green parks, natural scenic lakes, small mountains, historical buildings and monuments, relics and much more, which attracts thousands of tourists every year.
Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum (中山陵)
Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum (中山陵) (Figure 1) is situated at the foot of the second peak of Mount Zijin (Purple Mountain) in Nanjing, China. Dr. Sun Yat-sen is considered to be the “Father of Modern China” who fought against the imperial Qing government and ended the monarchy and established the Republic of China after the 1911 revolution. With deep historical significance, magnificent architecture and beautiful scenery, Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum is classified as a AAAAA scenic area by the China National Tourism Administration.
Figure 1: Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum (中山陵)
The Nanjing Presidential Palace (南京总统府)
The Nanjing Presidential Palace (南京总统府) (Figure 2) has more than 600 years history. It is not only the Headquarters of the Nationalist Government, but also the Palace of the Heavenly King and Office of the Viceroy of Two Lower Yangtze Provinces. The Presidential Palace is divided into three regions. The central region is mainly the presidential palace of the Nationalist Government and its affiliated institutions. The Western District is Sun Yat-sen’s temporary presidential office, the Secretariat and the West Garden, as well as the Staff Headquarters. The Eastern District is mainly the former site of the Administrative office, Stable and East Garden.
Figure 2: The Nanjing Presidential Palace (南京总统府)
Yuhuatai (雨花台) (Figure 3) is located in the south of Zhonghuamen, Nanjing. It is a patriotism education demonstration base. The whole scene is divided into six blocks: Martyrs' Cemetery District, Scenic Spots and Historic District, Yuhuashi Cultural District, Yuhuacha Culture Zone, Recreational Activity Zone and Ecological Forest Zone. In the Revolutionary Martyrs Memorial Hall and the Martyrs' Deeds Exhibition Hall, many books, manuscripts, clothes and writing tools of the soldiers were displayed. The lush park is not only a tourist attraction, but also a place for Nanjing citizens to entertain.
Figure 3: Yuhuatai (雨花台)
Xuanwu Lake (玄武湖)
Xuanwu Lake (玄武湖) (Figure 4) is located in Xuanwu District in the central-northeast part of Nanjing in Jiangsu, China. It is near the Nanjing Railway Station and Ji Ming Temple. Five islands within the lake are interconnected by arched bridges. A visit to the lake and its park can include up to a five-hour walk. Within the park are temples, pagodas, pavilions, gardens, teahouses, restaurants, entertainment venues, a small zoo, and other attractions. Its main entrance is the Xuanwu Gate.
Figure 4: Xuanwu Lake (玄武湖)
Qinhuai River (秦淮河)
The Qinhuai River (秦淮河) (Figure 5) is a tributary river of Yangtze River which runs through central Nanjing. It's also the birthplace of the traditional Nanjing culture. As such, it's called "Nanjing's mother river". It is the "life blood" of the city. The Qinhuai River is divided into inner and outer rivers. Today, the scenic belt along the Qinhuai River develops with the Confucius Temple at the center and the river serving as a bond. The belt featuring attractions like Zhanyuan Garden, the Confucius Temple, China Gate as well as the sailing boats.
Figure 5: Qinhuai River (秦淮河)
Tourism in Chengdu (For Conferences Held in Chengdu, 2018)
The conferences in July, 2018 have been held at Crown Plaza Chengdu City Centre. And the last day (from 8:30 to 17:00) of each conference is the time for tourism in Hangzhou. Here is the tourism route:
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding (大熊猫繁育研究基地)--- Wuhou Temple (武侯祠)--- Kuanzhai Ancient Street of Qing Dynasty (宽窄巷子)
Organizing Committee will provide the lunch during the tourism.
Chengdu, the capital of China's southwest Sichuan Province, is famed for being the home of cute giant pandas. Located in the west of Sichuan Basin and in the center of Chengdu Plain, the city covers a total area of 12.3 thousand square kilometres (4,749 square miles) with a population of over 11 million. Consisting of abundant mineral resources, the land is extremely fertile. It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages. It is now one of the most important economic, financial, commercial, cultural, transportation, and communication centers in Western China.
Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding (大熊猫繁育研究基地)
The giant panda(Figure 1) is a rare and beloved animal, with a population of less than 2000, the species is included on the endangered list by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and is protected by China’s Wildlife Protective Law as the special-class protected animal. Because of its prominent scientific research value, endangered status, and delightful viewing value, the giant panda is considered a national treasure of China. Though small in number, giant pandas have visited many countries and served as envoys of friendship from China to the world.
Figure 1: Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding (大熊猫繁育研究基地)
Wuhou Temple (武侯祠)
Wuhou Temple (Memorial Temple of Marquis Wu) (Figure 2) is dedicated to Zhuge Liang, the Marquis Wu (Wuhou) of Kingdom of Shu in the Three Kingdoms Period (220 - 280). Located in the south suburb of Chengdu, the temple covers 37,000 square meters (398,277 square feet). The date of its establishment is unclear, only that it was built next to the temple of Liu Bei, the emperor of Shu. It was combined with the Temple of Liu Bei at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty; consequently, the entrance plaque reads 'Zhaolie Temple of Han Dynasty' (Zhaolie is the posthumous title of Liu Bei). The current temple was rebuilt in 1672. Surrounded by old cypresses and classical red walls, it evokes nostalgia.
Figure 2: Wuhou Temple (武侯祠)
Kuanzhai Ancient Street of Qing Dynasty (宽窄巷子)
The Kuanzhai Alley (Figure 3) is often praised as the name card of Chengdu, capital of southwest China’s Sichuan province. Composed of three ancient streets of Qing Dynasty (1636-1912), Kuanzhai Alley showcases the original local lifestyle. It has been one of the most popular tourist sites in Chengdu. Consisting of Wide Alley (Kuan Xiangzi), Narrow Alley (Zhai Xiangzi), Well Alley (Jing Xiangzi) three parallel ancient city alleys and 45 courtyards along them, Kuanzhai Ancient Street is one of Chengdu’s historical and cultural reserves, together with Daci Temple reserve and Wenshu Monastery reserve. It is a microcosm of the city’s history as well as a deep mark in local people’s memory.
Figure 3: Kuanzhai Ancient Street of Qing Dynasty (宽窄巷子)